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Palm Reading of Actor & Singer Kishore Kumar

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Cheiro (1866-1936)
One of the most famous celebrated modern palmists was “William John Warner” also known as Count Louis Haman”kn own professionally as “Cheiro”. An Irish man learns palmistry from his age of 12th. His mother was from Greek community. She explains the type of hand and lines on hand to Cheiro at his age of 11th. She gave him first book at age of 12th. She also write in her diary that her son had mystery cross on both right and left hand that’s why she have give all books related to mystery. She also not that he studied this all books deeply though he is child. He will definitely become an author. His hand surely indicates that he will get fame in palmistry. Later in Cheiro write that his mother prediction was perfect. He became most famous palmist of the world. The word “Cheiromancy” related to Chierology. He visited India and visited many places collected information about palmistry and some very old books on palmistry. He was started professional practice in London. He makes this mystery knowledge in to proper science of palmistry. In the Greek language the word “Cheir” means hand. So he kept his name as “Cheiro”.;Cheiro write that he learn palmistry in Indian under Brahmin Joshi cast. He also mentions that Indian Vedas were the oldest books in world. He also write that India is the birth place of palmistry

Famous Palmist Cheiro
William Benham
In complete contrast to the intuitive and psychic approach of Cheiro and the plagiarism of Comte de St Germain, are the works of the American palmist, William Benham. Benham became interested in palmistry at the age of thirteen when, like D'Arpentigny before him, he met a young gipsy girl who taught him all she knew of gipsy chiromancy. By 1900, after years of extensive study and research, he produced his seminal work 'The Laws of Scientific Handreading'. He devoted his life to making the study of the hand "...a study worthy of the best efforts of the best minds" and so to raise it from the realms of superstition into a proper science. However, whilst this work is certainly one of the most comprehensive and detailed treatises on the hand of its time, it is doubtful as to whether Benham did discover any 'laws' or actually make hand reading into a 'proper science'. The work has all too often been over-praised by hand readers new to the study of palmistry such that any critical scrutiny of the work has been overlooked.

Famous Palmist William Benham

And yet there are some obvious aspects of Benham's approach which are clearly quite flawed. Whilst Benham shows some influence from D'Arpentigny and Desbarolles, many of the ideas and methods he presents are original. Unfortunately, it is some of these original ideas which are the most erroneous. For instance, he makes extensive use of the mounts and astrological symbolism, developing a whole new system of handshape classification around the typologies of the seven major planets. This in itself will perhaps be enough for some readers to pronounce this book entirely unscientific. However, his 'mount theories' still play a very strong part in the approach to the hand of many palmists - and this despite the fact that the mounts have been entirely dispensed with by the modern analytical chirologist. It has been shown time and time again that the mounts are one of the most unreliable indicators of personality from the hand. Nevertheless, this did not deter William Benham! On the basis of his personality theories as assessed from the mounts of the hand, he proposed a complete system for vocational assessment from the hand, which is the subject of his only other book 'How to Choose Vocations from the Hand', published in 1932. Evidently he managed to have some success with this method as he founded a school of palmistry in New York, along with an Institute for Vocational Guidance which seems to have still been active even as late as the 1950's. It seems that he was a sincere and genuine man. For instance, in an appendix to 'The Laws of Scientific Handreading', he provides a copy of the text of Aristotle's Masterpiece, which he believes was authored by Aristotle himself c350BC. Actually it was not, as it was published in London in 1738AD. But then Benham is not the only person who was naive about handreading history. Within his main book, Benham spends considerable time on the morphognomy of the hand and makes some particularly useful sections on analysing the fingers and the thumb. In some ways these are developments of the ideas of D'Arpentigny, but he never fails to support his observations with some quite unusual photographs of some of the most extreme chirognomical formations one is ever likely to see. The section on the thumb is one of the most comprehensive and well-illustrated chapters ever written on this one digit. Benham was one of the first to collect hand prints and hand photographs from the inmates of prisons and some of the most interesting hands he presents are from residents of America's State Penitentiaries. His section on the morphognomy of the hand is undoubtedly the better half of the book.

The second part of the 'Laws' concerns itself with the lines of the hand, which are also dealt with in exacting detail. In one respect he was in advance of many other handreaders of his day in that he was particularly concerned that no one feature of the hand should be read in isolation, but should always be considered in relation to all other features. He emphasised that this was especially true of the lines of the hand and as such he is the first author to abandon any remnant of the mediaeval 'fixed sign' approach and develop a more organic and synthetic methodology. Whilst this claim holds true in some respects, he did not, of course, apply this rule of his to interpreting 'signs' and 'marks' on the mounts! With regard to the lines in general, as with so many palmists before him, what we are presented with is a huge collection of little drawings of the most bizarre, unlikely and never-seen-before line formations. Unfortunately, there are absolutely no handprint illustrations of the line formations that he describes, which only leads one to suggest that this part of the book is, at best, purely theoretical. As a result of his 'synthetic' approach to the hand, he spends a great deal of time describing various combinations of lines (rather then fixed signs) - and then coming up with a very specific 'meaning' for this combination which is entirely unlikely! The unlikelihood of the explanation is compounded by the fact that the line combination in itself is one that would never, ever be seen. For the beginner, this is very confusing as these totally impossible line combinations are interspersed between illustrations of perfectly feasible formations of the palmar lines. It take a long time to realise that Benham is not perhaps as accurate as his generally serious and sober approach would lead you to believe. An obvious example of this is Benham's views on the Heart line. One of the most unscientific ideas that Benham presents, and which is the underlying 'philosophy' for his interpretations of various features of the hand, is his idea that the lines are expressions of a 'flow of energy' within the palm, presumably taking inspiration from Michaelangelo's painting of God giving life to Adam on the ceiling of the Sistene Chapel in Rome. Benham views the 'life-force energy' entering the hand through the index finger of the person and then 'travelling' down the three main lines of the hand to the wrist, returning back up the hand through the secondary lines. This idea is obviously quite without any empirical substantiation whatsoever, and yet it has influenced generations of handreaders ever since. It is purely this view which has led Benham to believe that the course of the Water line (or Heart line) runs from the index finger to the ulna edge of the palm. Nearly all palmists have followed him in this erroneous interpretation of the line. As is quite clear from the form and structure of the line itself, it 'runs' from the edge of the hand towards the index finger. This is one of the most unique contributions Benham has made to the study of the hand - going against the traditions of many centuries of handreading! - and it is one of those that has seemed to have 'stuck' into modern times primarily, due to the uncritical adulation that Benham's work has generally received. Whilst it is true that his book is refreshing for its originality, clarity of written presentation and thoroughness and exactitude, it should no longer be held up as the 'bible' of handreading as it has been for so long. The book contains far too many fundamental errors of judgement and entirely omits any discussion of the fingerprints or medical dermatoglyphics. Many of the ideas are simply out of date, unsurprisingly for a book written over 100 years ago.

When the book was reprinted in 1946, (in other words, after the works of at least Jaquin and Wolff had been published) Benham writes in the introduction: "... I have found no reason to change or correct any statement or indication contained in the book as originally published." For someone allegedly so open and innovative in his approach to handreading, this is a very surprising statement to make indeed - as if nothing had happened within the handreading world over nearly fifty years! As we shall see when we consider the modern chirology of the twentieth century, nothing could be further from the truth.

Noel Jaquin (1893-1974)
Noel Jaquin was one of the most important pioneers in the development of chirological diagnosis in this century, his written works spanning a time period of some thirty-two years. Although he is most important as a pioneer within the fields of health analysis and sexual and emotional evaluation from the hand, he has contributed something to all aspects of the chirological art. His work is as a broad canvas with a lightly sketched image, outlining the breadth of scope of the diagnostic potential of the hand. Jaquin first became interested in hand analysis when an uncle of his gave him a book on palmistry as a Christmas present when he was twelve years old, although it was some years before he developed a thorough-going passion for the subject. As a young man, Jaquin had an almost total fascination with biology and microscopes and even from this age was conducting his own scientific investigations.

Famous Palmist Neol Jaquin
At 17, he was the youngest member of the Queckett Society (a society dedicated to the study of microbiology) and he had decided he wanted to embark upon a medical career. During the First World War, he was assigned a comission in the navy but the economic disruption of the war was such that, after demobilisation, he could not pursue his chosen career for lack of funding. He therefore, somewhat reluctantly, went to work in his father's business which, though he hated it, nevertheless provided him with the financial security for him to pursue his chirological investigations. From 1922, he determined to collect the handprints of the eminent people of his day, and through this aim eventually was to come into contact with many people who were to assist him in his career. Sir Edward Marshall Hall KC introduced him to the Chief of Scotland Yard, with whom he discussed the possibility of using the whole handprint in criminological investigations, and through Sir James Galloway of Charing Cross Hospital, he was able to continue his health researches through examining the hands of hospital patients. Sir Edward Marshall Hall was to say of Jaquin's work that he was sure that chirology would be of inestimable assistance to both the law and medicine. He wrote his first book on handreading in 1925 and in 1926 was invited to pen an article for Pearson's Magazine. This was to prove to be the big breakthrough in his career, for in this article, he made an offer to analyse the hands of any readers who cared to send in a copy of their handprints for assessment. The response was staggering: more than 10,000 pairs of handprints were sent in! Two further articles in the magazine occasioned a similarly voluminous response and with all these hands to consider and letters to reply to, Jaquin was kept busy for several years. Moreover, such a vast collection of prints enabled him to base his chirological investigations on a sure empirical footing. On several occasions, the handprints sent in were not from the owners of the hands themselves, but from sceptical doctors wishing to check Jaquin's claims that he could detect health problems from the patterns of the hand alone. He reports many examples where the doctors replied to his diagnosis with an affirmative testimony.

Jaquin maintained many friendships with doctors throughout his career and was therefore able to have his diagnoses confirmed in many cases. Moreover, some of his doctor friends would even ask Jaquin to assist them, especially in the diagnosis of their more difficult cases! One relationship of importance was that with Dr Guyon Richards who was an important pioneer of both radiesthesia and homoeopathy. Jaquin also had a firm belief in the virtues of homoeopathy and would often recommend homoeopathic remedies to those who consulted him. The main bulk of Jaquin's contributions to the development of chirology lie therefore in the field of health diagnosis from the hand. Jaquin pioneered his own research into the dermatoglyphic patterns of the hand and was the first to assert the psychological significance of fingerprint patterns. He also researched their physiological significance, coming up with similar results to those modern (1970's+) dermatoglyphic researchers who have correlated the various fingerprint patterns with inherited tendencies towards specific diseases. More importantly, he was the first to investigate the significance of the degeneration of skin-ridges in the palm itself and to correlate these with specific bacteriological infections of specific organs of the body, this aspect of his research being a natural consequence of the confluence of his two abiding interests, chirology and microbiology. Skin ridge dissociation is now an acknowledged phenomena within modern scientific dermatoglyphic research and has shown itself to be a powerful means of diagnosing present disease conditions. Jaquin also conducted research into the chirological manifestations of heart disease, cancer, digestive dysfunctions, respiratory illnesses, kidney problems and diseases of the genito-urinary system in general. He believed firmly in the contribution made by both our psychological and emotional well-being to our physical condition of health and considered his diagnosis of health and illness from the hand with this in mind. The best summary of his approach to health diagnosis from the hand can be found in his work of 1933, 'The Hand of Man'. A second book, 'The Hand Speaks' of 1942, is also invaluable as a documentation of Jaquin's work, for it is an anthology of handprints and case histories with a particular emphasis upon the diagnosis of illnesses and emotional and sexual problems.

Altogether, Jaquin wrote some nine books on chirology and although some of these are rather more popular in orientation, all of them contribute something new to the study of the hand. In his later years, it is clear Jaquin became somewhat more metaphysically inclined and less disposed towards a purely scientific and empirical approach to the study of the hand. His last two books 'The Human Hand' (1956) and 'The Theory of Metaphysical Influence' (1958) concentrate far more on his general theories about life, the universe and everything and expound more of his philosophy of handreading than its actual practice. Just before the end of the Second World War, in April 1945, Noel Jaquin helped to found the Society for the Study of Physiological Patterns, in conjunction with Hilda Jaffe, Beryl Hutchinson and Margaret Hone amongst others. This was to be a society dedicated to promoting the scientific importance of chirology as a diagnostic tool in the analysis of psychological and pathological conditions. The society continues to flourish to this day, providing a forum for chirological debate which has hosted some of the most eminent chirologists of modern times. Jaquin's self-professed aim was always to make handreading '..a definite science that will be of practical value to humanity' and throughout his life he always remained committed to help all those who came his way. Always a seeker of the truth rather than humbug, whatever conventions may be disrupted in so doing, Noel Jaquin stands today as one of the noblest of all the pioneers in the history of the study of the hand.